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Internal Family Systems Therapy

Harnessing the Power of the Mind: Embracing the Parts, Empowering the Self with Internal Family Systems Therapy

What is Internal Family Systems?

Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy is an approach to psychotherapy that identifies and addresses multiple sub-personalities or “families” within each person’s mental system.

These sub-personalities often conflict with one another and with one’s core Self, which is the confident, compassionate, whole person at the core of every individual.

IFS focuses on healing the wounded parts and restoring mental balance and harmony by changing the dynamics that create discord among the sub-personalities and the Self.

Importance of IFS in Modern Psychotherapy

Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy holds significant importance in modern psychotherapy due to its innovative approach to understanding and treating mental health conditions.

Unlike traditional therapeutic models that focus on suppressing or altering challenging symptoms, IFS encourages the exploration of these symptoms as manifestations of different internal parts.

This approach fosters a deeper understanding of one’s inner world and its complex dynamics.

The therapy has proven effective in treating various mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, trauma, and substance use. Its focus on empowering the individual’s Self to lead internal parts toward harmony aligns well with the increasingly person-centred ethos of contemporary psychotherapy.

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Core Concepts of Internal Family Systems

Importance of IFS in Modern Psychotherapy

The Self, as conceptualized in Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy, is the essence of who you are at your core. The confident, compassionate, and whole person is central to your being.

The Self is not a part; instead, it’s the entity that possesses qualities of calmness, curiosity, compassion, confidence, creativity, courage, connectedness, and clarity, often referred to as the “8 Cs” in IFS.

The Self is the natural leader within us, capable of understanding, empathizing with, and healing the parts of our internal system.

Subpersonalities or Parts

In IFS, subpersonalities, or “parts,” are the distinct mental and emotional entities within us.

They are formed in response to life experiences, particularly traumatic or painful ones, and their primary role is to protect the individual from pain and harm.

IFS has three main types of parts: Exiles, Managers, and Firefighters.

  • Exiles: Exiles are parts that hold the pain, trauma, and extreme emotions from past experiences.These parts are often pushed away or “exiled” to the subconscious to protect the individual from re-experiencing the pain. Exiles are often vulnerable and need care and compassion to heal.
  • Managers: Managers are proactive parts that strive to maintain control and prevent the pain of the exiles from surfacing. They manage daily life and interactions to avoid situations that could lead to hurt or trigger the exiles. Managers often present as perfectionistic, controlling, or people-pleasing behaviours.
  • Firefighters: Firefighters are reactive parts that spring into action when exiles are activated despite the managers’ efforts. They use distraction or numbing strategies, like addiction, binge or eating disorders, or impulsivity, to avoid the overwhelming feelings and memories that exiles could bring to consciousness.

Exiles are parts that hold the pain, trauma, and extreme emotions from past experiences.

These parts are often pushed away or “exiled” to the subconscious to protect the individual from re-experiencing the pain. Exiles are often vulnerable and need care and compassion to heal.

The Systemic Nature of the Mind

IFS views the mind as a system of parts, much like a family, with the Self as the natural leader.

Every part has a role and a voice, and all parts are valuable. Understanding the systemic nature of the mind in IFS involves recognizing the interactions and relationships among the parts and between the parts and the Self.

The goal is not to eliminate parts but to help them find healthy roles within the system, guided by the Self.

The Healing Relationship Between Self and Parts

In the Internal Family Systems model, healing comes from the relationship between the Self and the parts.

By accessing the Self and its qualities of compassion, curiosity, and calmness, individuals can connect with each part, understand its concerns and fears, and help it unburden from extreme roles.

With its innate wisdom and healing capacity, the Self can lead the system toward balance and harmony. This process transforms the internal system from one dominated by extreme parts to one led by the Self, fostering a greater sense of well-being and wholeness.

The Goals of Internal Family Systems Therapy

Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy’s primary goals are to facilitate a harmonious and healthy relationship between the Self and the various parts of an individual’s psyche.

This is achieved through Self-leadership, unburdening and releasing trauma, and harmonizing internal relationships.


One of the central goals of IFS therapy is to enhance Self-leadership. This goal is achieved by helping individuals access their Self and learn to lead their internal system from this centred, confident place.

By doing so, the individual can listen to and understand their parts without being overwhelmed, leading to better self-awareness, self-understanding, and, ultimately, self-compassion.

Unburdening and Releasing Trauma

Another crucial goal of IFS therapy is the process of unburdening, which involves releasing the intense feelings, beliefs, and sensations that parts carry from past traumatic experiences.

This process enables the exiled parts, those carrying the burdens of childhood trauma, to relinquish their extreme roles and beliefs.

The unburdening process is deeply healing and transformative, allowing these parts to move from pain and distress to relief and resilience.

Harmonizing Internal Relationships

IFS therapy also aims to harmonize the relationships within the internal system. This involves promoting cooperation, understanding, and compassion among the parts and between the parts and the Self.

As parts learn to trust the leadership of the Self, they become less polarized and extreme in their roles, leading to a more balanced and harmonious internal system.

This process results in an overall sense of well-being, inner peace, and a more cohesive sense of Self, which can significantly enhance the individual’s functioning and quality of life.

IFS and Other Therapeutic Models

As an integrative model of psychotherapy, Internal Family Systems (IFS) share some similarities with other therapeutic approaches but also have unique differences.

Understanding these comparisons can provide a broader perspective on their versatility and applicability.

Comparisons with Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

IFS and CBT view individuals’ thoughts and beliefs as vital to their emotional and behavioural responses. However, CBT focuses on challenging and changing dysfunctional thoughts to modify behaviour and emotional responses, whereas IFS explores the different parts or sub-personalities that carry these thoughts and beliefs.

While CBT promotes cognitive restructuring, IFS encourages understanding, empathy, and healing of the parts, leading to a natural shift in thoughts and behaviours.

Comparisons with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy

DBT and IFS both emphasize mindfulness and self-awareness. DBT, however, often focuses on teaching skills to manage emotional dysregulation and improve interpersonal effectiveness.

In contrast, IFS emphasizes understanding and healing the parts of the Self, believing that as parts heal and trust, the Self’s leadership, emotional regulation and interpersonal effectiveness will naturally improve.

Comparisons with Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt therapy and IFS focus similarly on the “here and now” and the awareness of one’s internal processes. Both treatments use techniques such as role-play or chair work to help individuals explore different aspects of their selves.

However, while Gestalt therapy often emphasizes integrating these aspects into a whole, IFS focuses more on fostering a harmonious relationship between the Self and the parts, allowing the Self to lead and the parts to existing in their roles without needing to merge.

Comparisons with Family Systems Therapy

Family Systems Therapy (FST) and IFS share a systemic perspective, viewing the individual or family as a system of interacting parts or members. FST typically focuses on the dynamics and communication patterns within a family system, while IFS applies this systemic view to the individual’s internal world.

Richard Schwartz, the developer of IFS, was a family therapist and drew from systems theory in his creation of IFS, making this comparison particularly apt.

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Applications of IFS Therapy

The flexibility and holistic approach of Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy make it applicable across various mental health and personal development domains.

It has demonstrated efficacy in trauma treatment, relationship counselling, mental health professionals, personal development and self-improvement.

IFS in Trauma Treatment

IFS has been recognized as an efficient approach to trauma treatment. By identifying and understanding the parts that carry burdens from traumatic experiences, individuals can work towards healing these parts and releasing the burdens they carry.

This unburdening process is deeply healing and can significantly relieve trauma and depressive symptoms. It fosters resilience and empowers individuals to navigate their lives with greater calmness and self-assurance.

IFS in Relationship Counselling

IFS therapy can also be valuable in relationship counselling. By helping each individual in the relationship understand their parts and how they interact with the parts of their partner, IFS can lead to greater empathy and understanding within the relationship.

It can also assist in resolving internal conflicts that may be playing out in the relationship, leading to healthier and more harmonious interactions.

IFS in Personal Development and Self-Improvement

Internal Family Systems therapy is not only for those seeking to address mental health concerns or relationship issues. It can also be an effective tool for personal development and self-improvement.

It can assist individuals in recognizing and changing unhelpful patterns, enhancing their strengths, and pursuing their personal and professional goals with greater confidence and clarity.

Our IFS Therapists (Mental Health Professionals)

Frequently Asked Questions

In an IFS session, the therapist first helps the client access their Self, a state of curiosity, compassion, and calm. The client is guided to identify and explore their parts from this state of Self-leadership.The therapist helps the client understand each part's role, feelings, and beliefs and fosters a humane therapeutic relationship between the Self and each part. The client is then supported in healing and unburdening parts that carry burdens, leading to transformation and balance within the internal system.
Yes, IFS can be applied in group therapy settings. Group members can learn from each other's processes and experiences, offer mutual support, and build community. In addition, IFS groups talk therapy can be particularly beneficial for individuals dealing with similar issues, such as trauma, addiction, or relationship difficulties.

IFS differs from traditional psychotherapy in its view of the mind as a system of parts, each with its roles, feelings, and beliefs. Instead of focusing on symptom reduction, IFS aims to heal and balance the internal system by addressing the parts carrying burdens and fostering Self-leadership.

This perspective encourages empathy and understanding towards all parts, leading to deep healing and lasting change.

Some people may mistakenly believe that IFS promotes fragmentation or multiple personalities. In reality, IFS views the mind as naturally multiplicitous and seeks to foster harmony and balance among the parts under the leadership of the Self.

Another misconception is that IFS is only for people with severe trauma or mental health issues.

However, IFS can benefit anyone seeking to understand themselves better, improve their relationships, or enhance their personal growth and well-being.

You can find a qualified IFS therapist through professional directories, such as the one provided by the Center for Self Leadership, which offers training and certification in IFS.

Look for therapists who have completed IFS training and, if possible, have certification in IFS.

Yes, IFS can be adapted for use with children and adolescents. The IFS model can help young people understand their feelings, thoughts, and behaviours in a compassionate and non-pathologizing way.

It can also enhance their self-awareness, emotional regulation, and problem-solving skills. In addition, therapists may use age-appropriate language and creative methods, like drawing or play, to help children and adolescents engage with the IFS process.

No matter what you are struggling with, we are here for you.

No matter what you are struggling with, we are here for you.

Picture of Pareen Sehat MC, RCC

Pareen Sehat MC, RCC

Pareen’s career began in Behaviour Therapy, this is where she developed a passion for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches. Following a Bachelor of Arts with a major in Psychology she pursued a Master of Counselling. Pareen is a Registered Clinical Counsellor (RCC) with the BC Association of Clinical Counsellors. She specializes in CBT and Lifespan Integrations approaches to anxiety and trauma. She has been published on major online publications such as - Yahoo, MSN, AskMen, PsychCentral, Best Life Online, and more.